Vaccines are made by taking viruses or bacteria and weakening them so that they can’t reproduce or replicate themselves.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease.A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed from of microbe,it’s toxins or one of its surface proteins.
A vaccine works by training the immune system to recognise and and combat pathogen must be introduced into the body to trigger an immune response.These molecules are called Antigents and they are present all viruses and bacteria.
They are four types of vaccines:
1)subunit:It is a fragment of a pathogen typically a surface protein that is used to trigger and immune response and stimulated acquired immunity against the pathogen from which it is derived.
Example:-Vaccine of Difhtheria,Hepatisis-B, Tetanus etc.
2)Recombined:-is a vaccine produced through Recombined DNA technology.This involves inserting the DNA encoding an intigen that stimulates an immune response into a bacterial and mammalian cells expressing the antigen in the cells then purifying it from them into bacterial or mammalian cells,expressing the antigent in those cells and purifying in front of them.
Example:-Human Papilloma Virus(HPV).
3)Polysacchorides:-are a unique type of inactivated subunit vaccine composed of long chains of sugar molecules that make up the surface capsule of certain bacteria.
Example:Sulmonella Typhi,Pneumococcal and Meningoccal viruses.
4)Conjugate:-It combines weak antigen with a strong antigen as a carrier so that immune system has a strong response to the weak antigen.
Example:-HIB conjugate vaccine.
Stages for vaccine production:-
1)Clinical Stage:Clinical experiments and success at the laboratory.
2)Human Trial Stage:-
Stage-1:-Experiments on a very small number of people
Stage-2:-Experiments on a large number of people.
3)Licensing & Approval Stage
4)Ready for mass production
5)Produced and available in the market.
There are ‘8’ vaccines in the surface today according to WHO
‘4’ of them from China and they are in Human Trial Stage 1/2
Oxford University vaccine with their different associates all over the world in a Human Trial Stage:-1/2
Italy develops a vaccine they are in Human Trial Stage:1/2
Israel claims to develop a antigen.Probably they are in Human Trial Stage:-1/2
US based Moderna company with the help of US NIAID(National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) develops a vaccine and it is also in Human Trial Stage:1/2.
Finally in the conclusion we must say all the ‘8’ vaccines are in Human Trial Stage and we have to wait for some more time to win over this menace.
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